Adenoid is a set of lymphatic tissue, similar to ganglia, that is part of the immune system for the defense of the body against microorganisms. There are 2 adenoids, located on each side, in the transition between the nose and the throat, the region where the breath of air passes and where communication with the ear begins.
Together with the tonsils, which are located at the bottom of the throat, they are part of the so-called Waldeyer’s Lymphatic Ring, responsible for protecting the region of the nasal, oral cavities and the throat, which develop and grow as the immune system develops. develops, between 3 to 7 years of age, and should regress during adolescence.
However, in some children, adenoids, and tonsils can become very large or persistently inflamed, with constant infections, losing their protective capacity, and causing health problems, such as breathing difficulties. Therefore, the otolaryngologist may indicate the need for surgery to remove it.
What symptoms can cause
When adenoids are excessively enlarged, called hypertrophied, or when they become persistently infected and inflamed, which is called adenoiditis, some of the symptoms caused are:
- Difficulty breathing through the nose, breathing frequently through the mouth;
- Noisy breathing;
- Snoring, pauses in breathing and coughing during sleep;
- He speaks as if his nose is always blocked;
- Frequent episodes of pharyngitis, sinusitis and otitis;
- Hearing difficulties;
- Dental changes, such as misalignment of the dental arch and changes in the growth of facial bones.
In addition, the reduction in oxygenation during sleep causes changes in the child’s development, which can cause situations such as difficulty in concentration, irritability, hyperactivity, drowsiness during the day, drop in school performance and growth failure.
Some of these symptoms are also common in people with sinusitis. See the symptoms in case of sinusitis to know how to differentiate.
How is the treatment
Generally, when adenoids are infected, the initial treatment can be done with the use of antibiotics, such as Amoxicillin, in addition to anti-inflammatories or corticosteroids, when inflamed due to allergies. However, if adenoids are frequently inflamed and impair breathing, the pediatrician may advise you to have surgery to remove them and improve the quality of your breathing and prevent further infections.
When surgery is indicated
Surgery, called an adenoidectomy, is an option when treatment with medications does not work properly or when the child goes through frequent symptoms of adenoiditis. The main indications for surgery include:
- Otitis or recurrent sinusitis;
- Hearing Loss;
- Sleep apnea;
- Nasal obstruction so severe that the child can only breathe through the mouth.
It is a procedure done under general anesthesia, with removal of adenoids through the mouth. In the same procedure, the tonsils can also be removed, and since it is a relatively simple surgery, it is possible to return home on the same day as the procedure. Find out more details about how it is done and recovery from adenoid surgery .
The removal of adenoids does not affect the immune system, as there are other defense mechanisms of the body that continue to act in the defense of the organism.