Albinism is a hereditary genetic disease that causes the body’s cells to be unable to produce Melanin, a pigment that when it does not cause a lack of color in the skin, eyes, hair or hair. An Albino’s skin is usually white, sensitive to the sun, and fragile, while the color of the eyes can vary from very light blue almost transparent to brown, and this is a disease that can also appear in animals such as the orangutan, for example.
In addition, albinos are also prone to certain diseases, such as vision problems such as strabismus, myopia, or photophobia due to the light color of the eyes or skin cancer caused by lack of skin color.
Types of Albinism
Albinism is a genetic condition where there may be a total or partial absence of pigmentation and that can affect only certain organs, such as the eyes, being in these cases called ocular Albinism, or that can affect the skin and hair, being in these chaos known as Cutaneous albinism. In cases where there is a lack of pigmentation throughout the body, this is known as oculocutaneous Albinism.
Causes of Albinism
Albinism is caused by a genetic change related to the production of Melanin in the body. Melanin is produced by an amino acid known as Tyrosine and what happens in the albino is that this amino acid is inactive, thus having little or no production of Melanin, the pigment responsible for giving color to the skin, hair and eyes.
Albinism is a hereditary genetic condition, which can thus be passed on from parents to children, requiring a gene to mutate from the father and another from the mother for the disease to manifest. However, an albino person may carry the albinism gene and not manifest the disease, since this disease only appears when this gene is inherited from both parents.
Diagnosis of Albinism
The diagnosis of albinism can be made from the symptoms observed, lack of color in the skin, eyes, hair, and hair, as can also be done through genetic laboratory tests that identify the type of albinism.
Treatment and Care for Albinism
There is no cure or treatment for Albinism as it is an inherited genetic disease that occurs due to a mutation in a gene, but there are some measures and precautions that can significantly improve Albino’s life, such as:
- Wear hats or accessories that protect your head from sunlight;
- Wear clothing that protects the skin well, such as long-sleeved shirts;
- Wear sunglasses to protect your eyes well from the sun’s rays and to avoid sensitivity to light;
- Apply SPF 30 or more sunscreen before leaving home and exposing yourself to the sun and its rays.
Babies with this genetic problem must be monitored from birth and follow-up must extend throughout life, so that their health status can be regularly assessed, and the albino must be frequently monitored by a dermatologist and an ophthalmologist.
Albino, when sunbathing, barely gets a tan, being only subject to possible sunburn and, therefore, whenever possible, direct exposure to sunlight should be avoided to avoid possible problems such as skin cancer.