Common changes in urine are related to the different components of urine, such as color, smell and presence of substances, such as proteins, glucose, hemoglobin or leukocytes, for example.
Generally, changes in urine are identified in the result of the urine test ordered by the doctor, but they can also be noticed at home, especially when they cause changes in color and smell or cause symptoms such as pain when urinating and excessive urination to urinate.
In any case, whenever urine changes occur, it is recommended that the water intake be increased during the day or consult a urologist if the symptoms persist for more than 24 hours.
Urine changes identified at home
1. Color of urine
Changes in the color of urine are usually caused by the amount of water ingested, that is, when you drink more water during the day the urine is lighter, while when you drink little water the urine is darker. In addition, some medications, contrast tests and food can also change the color of the urine, making it pink, red or green, for example. Learn more at: What can change the color of urine .
What to do: it is recommended to increase the daily water intake to at least 1.5 liters and consult a urologist if the color of the urine does not return to normal after 24 hours.
2. Smell of urine
Changes in the smell of urine are very common when there is a urinary infection, causing the appearance of a foul smell when urinating, as well as burning or frequent urge to urinate. However, patients with diabetes may experience normal elevations in the smell of urine due to excess sugar in the urine. See other causes for strong smelling urine in Know what Urine with Strong Smell means .
What to do: It is important to see a general practitioner or urologist to have a urine culture and identify whether there are bacteria in the urine that may be causing a urinary tract infection. See how the treatment is done in: Treatment for urinary infection .
3. Amount of urine
Changes in the amount of urine are usually related to drinking water, so when the amount is less, it means that you are drinking little water during the day, for example. However, changes in the amount of urine can also indicate health problems such as diabetes, kidney failure or anemia.
What to do: water consumption should be increased if the amount of urine has decreased, however, if the problem persists, a urologist or nephrologist should be consulted to diagnose the problem and start appropriate treatment.
Changes in urine test
1. Proteins in the urine
The presence of proteins is one of the main changes in urine in pregnancy due to the increased workload of the kidneys, however, in other situations, it can be a sign of kidney problems, such as kidney failure or infection, for example.
What to do: You should see a urologist to do other tests, such as a blood test, urine culture or ultrasound, to diagnose what is causing the appearance of proteins in the urine and start appropriate treatment.
2. Glucose in urine
Generally, the presence of glucose in the urine happens when blood sugar levels are very high, such as during a diabetes crisis or after eating a lot of sweets, for example. However, it can also happen when there is a kidney problem.
What to do: It is important to see the general practitioner to check blood sugar levels, as it can be a sign of diabetes, if it has not yet been diagnosed.
3. Hemoglobin in urine
The presence of hemoglobin in the urine, also known as blood in the urine, usually happens due to kidney or urinary tract problems, such as urinary tract infection or kidney stones. In these cases, pain and burning when urinating are also frequent. See other causes at: Bloody urine .
What to do: a urologist should be consulted to identify the cause of blood in the urine and initiate appropriate treatment.
4. Leukocytes in urine
The existence of leukocytes in the urine is a sign of urinary infection, even if the patient does not show any symptoms, such as fever or pain when urinating.
What to do: you must consult the urologist to start the treatment of urinary infection with antibiotics, such as Amoxicillin or Ciprofloxacino, for example.
When to go to the doctor
It is recommended to consult a urologist when:
- Changes in the color and smell of urine last for more than 24 hours;
- Altered results appear in the routine urine test;
- Other symptoms appear, such as fever above 38ºC, severe pain when urinating or vomiting;
- There is difficulty with urination or urinary incontinence.
To identify the cause of the changes in the urine, the doctor may order diagnostic tests, such as ultrasound, computed tomography or cystoscopy.
See also: What can cause foamy urine .