In feeding for hemodialysis it is essential to control the intake of fluids and proteins and avoid foods rich in potassium and salt, such as milk, chocolate and snacks for example, so as not to accumulate toxins in the body, which aggravate the functioning of the kidneys. Thus, the diet should be guided by a nutritionist so that the patient can ingest the correct amounts of nutrients and remain healthy.
In some cases, after the hemodialysis session, which is a treatment to filter the blood and remove toxic substances from the body, the patient has nausea and a lack of appetite, and must eat small amounts of food and eat light meals to replace lost energy. .
Diet for hemodialysis
Patients on hemodialysis can eat carbohydrates, such as rice, pasta, flour, unsalted crackers or bread, without limitations if you are not on a diet to lose weight. These foods, in addition to providing energy, have little or no protein, sodium, potassium and phosphorus that can only be eaten in small amounts
Thus, the patient undergoing hemodialysis has changes in the functioning of the kidneys and therefore needs:
1. Control the amount of protein
The consumption of proteins can be done but the amount that can be ingested at each meal depends on the weight and the functioning of the patient’s kidney and, therefore, the values are indicated by the nutritionist, and must always be respected. For this reason, in most cases it is necessary to use a scale to weigh the permitted amount, and it is usually recommended 0.8 to 1g / kg / day.
The main source of protein must be of animal origin such as chicken, turkey and egg whites because it is better tolerated by the body and, in some cases, it may be necessary to take nutritional supplements such as Ensure Plus, Nepro, Promod Protein Powder, for example , as indicated by the nutritionist. Learn more Foods rich in protein .
2. Limit potassium consumption
It is necessary to control the intake of potassium, which can be found in most vegetables, fruits, milk and chocolate, as excess potassium in the blood leads to heart problems and muscle weakness.
The following is a table with the foods that should be avoided and those that can be eaten.
|Potassium-Rich Foods – Avoid||Low Potassium Foods – Consume|
|pumpkin, chayote, tomato||broccoli, chili|
|beet, chard, celery||raw cabbage, bean sprouts|
|radish, endive||cashew cherry|
|banana, papaya, cassava||lemon, passion fruit|
|cereals, milk, meat, potatoes||watermelon, grape juice|
|chocolate, nuts||lime, jabuticaba|
Dried fruits such as nuts, concentrated fruit juices, cooking broths and salt or light salt substitutes are also rich in potassium and therefore should be eliminated from the diet. See those foods you should avoid because they are foods rich in potassium .
How to control the amount of potassium: Part of the potassium leaves the food, so you can soak the food in water 2 hours before cooking or eating, or cook it in boiling water.
3. Decrease the amount of salt
Sodium is normally ingested through foods rich in salt and in excessive amounts it can accumulate in the body, leading to a feeling of thirst, swollen body and high blood pressure, which is very harmful to the health of the patient on dialysis.
A patient undergoing hemodialysis can normally only consume up to 1000 mg of sodium daily, however the exact amounts must be indicated by the nutritionist. Thus, the patient should not add salt to the food, as most foods already contain sodium.
How to control the amount of salt: Read food labels, avoiding buying foods rich in salt, such as canned, frozen fast food and sausages, opting for fresh foods. Another strategy is to use herbs, seeds, oil and vinegar to season. Know tips to know How to reduce salt consumption .
4. Drink few fluids
The amount of fluids you drink daily varies with the amount of urine the patient makes. However, the amount of liquid to drink per day should not exceed 800 ml, including water, ice, juice, gelatin, milk, tea, chimarrão, ice cream, coffee or soup, it is important to register the ingested fluids daily.
Fluids accumulate easily in the body, causing swelling because the kidneys are malfunctioning, leading to high blood pressure and heart problems and excess fluid in the body leads to weight gain, which should not exceed 2.5 kg between each session.
How to control the amount of fluids: use a measured bottle and drink that amount during the day; if you are thirsty put a piece of lemon in your mouth and rinse with water but do not swallow. In addition, you should breathe more through your nose than through your mouth, it helps not dry out the mucosa. Know tips to know How to drink water in chronic kidney failure .
5. Keep the body’s minerals stable
The patient undergoing dialysis must maintain the values of phosphorus, calcium, iron and vitamin D, balanced for the body to function properly, being important:
- Phosphorus: Excess phosphorus in the blood can cause fragility in the bones, which can cause fractures, a lot of pain in the joints and itching in the body. Thus, it is necessary to control the amount of phosphorus-rich foods, such as milk, cheese, beans, nuts, and soft drinks, as this mineral is little removed from the body during dialysis.
- Calcium: Generally, when phosphorus is limited, calcium is also limited, as these nutrients are found in the same foods. Since it is not necessary to reduce the amount of calcium, it may be necessary to take a calcium supplement to maintain healthy bones.
- Vitamin D: If the patient is undergoing hemodialysis, it may be necessary to take vitamin D supplementation, such as Rocaltrol or Calcijex in the form of pills or injection to help absorb calcium and phosphorus.
- Iron: During the hemodialysis session there is a loss of some amount of blood and iron or even the wrong diet, which can lead to anemia, being necessary to take an iron supplement, indicated by the doctor.
The nutritionist should carry out a menu appropriate to the needs of the patient with kidney problems and who is undergoing hemodialysis, indicating the most appropriate foods and the correct amounts for each case.
Also learn how to eat after kidney transplantation .