Dark spots on the skin are the most common, being caused by excessive sun exposure over time. This is because the sun’s rays stimulate the production of melanin, which is the pigment that gives color to the skin, but hormonal changes, use of medications and other factors act on the melanocytes that give rise to the spots on the face or body.
Know how to identify and remove the 8 main types of spots on the skin:
1. Dark spots on the face
Melasma is a dark spot that appears on the face, close to the apples on the cheek and forehead, and its appearance in pregnancy or menopause is very common because it is closely linked to hormonal changes. In this case, these changes irritate the melanocytes that leave darker areas in certain areas of the face. These usually appear or get worse when the person is very exposed to the sun.
How to take it out: Apply daily sunscreen with maximum protection factor and avoid prolonged exposure to the sun, as well as heat sources, avoiding getting into hot cars parked in the sun or using the oven, for example. In addition, you can apply a cream or ointment to lighten the skin. Hydroquinone may be indicated, but it should not be used for more than 4 weeks. Other options include Vitanol A, cream with acids like Klassis, or Adapalene, for example.
2. Stains caused by sun hair
The spots caused by the sun occur more frequently in people with light or dark skin who are exposed to the sun without using sunscreen. The most affected parts of the body are the hands, arms, face and neck, and although they are more common after 40 years of age, they can also appear in younger people.
How to remove: The clearest and superficial ones can be eliminated with exfoliation, every 2 weeks. When there is a greater number of spots, it is recommended to go to the dermatologist to indicate the most suitable products. This is important because when the person has many spots of this type, they have a higher risk of skin cancer and this doctor will be able to assess whether the spots that they have have this risk or not. The use of whitening creams can be a good option but aesthetic treatments such as laser, pulsed light and peeling, also have great results.
3. Red spots on the skin
The dermatitis that manifests itself through red spots on the skin can be a consequence of the appearance of an allergy, and can cause brown spots on the skin that itch and that may appear after eating allergenic foods, such as shrimp, strawberries or peanuts, for example, after apply products to the skin, such as creams, perfumes or cosmetics, or use objects in contact with the skin, such as bracelets or necklaces.
How to remove: It may be indicated to apply a corticoid-based cream 2 times a day, until the symptoms subside. It is recommended to consult a dermatologist to identify the cause of the allergy, in order to avoid contact with what caused the allergy.
4. Ringworm or white cloth
The white cloth, also known as beach ringworm, appears due to an infection caused by fungus, which causes the appearance of several small whitish spots on the skin. Over time, the ringworm spreads over the skin, but generally the person was not contaminated on the beach, but after getting more tanned, managed to observe the presence of whitish areas. The cause of ringworm is a fungus that lives on human skin, in a controlled amount, but when the person’s immune system is compromised, it is common for there to be a greater proliferation of this fungus on the skin, giving rise to ringworm.
How to remove: In this case, it is recommended to apply an antifungal cream on the skin, twice a day, for 3 weeks. When the area to be treated is very large, involving all the back, it may be necessary to take an oral antifungal, such as Fluconazole, under medical advice.
5. Stain or burn caused by Lemon
Phytophotodermatitis is the scientific name for skin lesions caused by lemon. It is enough that the lemon comes into contact with the skin and the person is exposed to the sun immediately afterwards, that the skin reacts and there may be a burn or small dark spots on the skin, especially on the hands.
How to take it: It is recommended to wash the skin well, apply a cream with hydroquinone, 3 to 4 times a day, and avoid placing products, such as perfumes or cosmetics, on the affected skin. In addition it is also important to always use sunscreen on the affected area, so that the treatment is effective.
6. Diabetes spots
Acanthosis nigricans is the scientific name for the dark spots that appear around the neck, skin folds, underarms and under the breast, in people who have insulin resistance or diabetes. However, although it is more rare, this type can also appear in people with cancer.
How to take it: You should consult the dermatologist, who will prescribe whitening creams and identify the cause of acanthosis nigricans. In addition, when it is caused by being overweight, the patient must lose weight because this will facilitate the treatment to even out the skin tone.
Vitiligo is a disease that leads to the appearance of white patches on the skin, especially in places such as the genitals, elbows, knees, face, feet and hands. Vitiligo can occur at any age and its causes are not yet known.
How to take: It is recommended to consult the dermatologist to start the appropriate treatment according to each case. Creams that evens out skin tone can be used but sunscreen is essential because fair skin is more likely to develop skin cancer.
8. Stains on the face due to acne
Pimple scar is a very common cause of skin blemishes in young teenagers, arising mainly after the treatment of severe acne, for example.
How to take it off: A good treatment to even out the skin tone is to pass oil of rose musket, 2 to 3 times a day on the scar, avoiding exposure to the sun. But in addition, it is also important to keep skin oils controlled, with anti-acne treatments. When the person no longer has any blackheads or pimples, treatments to lighten the skin may be indicated, such as the use of acid creams, acid peeling, microneedling and aesthetic treatments such as laser or pulsed light.
How to get rid of birth spots
Birth spots can be reddish or darker than skin tone, and generally do not respond well to any type of treatment, being a characteristic that the person has. But when it causes a lot of embarrassment, the person can go to the dermatologist to evaluate the treatments that may be indicated, because it will depend on its location and the depth of each stain.
Acid peeling that removes the outermost and intermediate layer of the skin and laser treatment may be some options indicated to remove this type of stain on the skin. Getting a tattoo taking advantage of the shape and location of the stain can also be a more positive way of living in peace with the stain.
Care to increase treatment success
The 4 essential cares to prevent the appearance of new spots on the skin, and to prevent those that already exist from getting even darker, are:
- Always use a sunscreen with a high protection factor before leaving home;
- Daily moisturize the skin of the entire body and face, with creams suitable for each type;
- Avoid excessive sun exposure;
- Do not squeeze pimples or blackheads, which can leave dark marks on the skin.
Such care must be taken when treating any type of skin stain.